Nutrition Quiz Answers
General Overall Macronutrient Mix (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats)
Athletes who exercise more than 10 hours per week: Emphasize carbohydrates—from 65 to 75% of total calories.
Energy During Competition
Carbohydrate is the fuel of choice for exercising athletes. Up to 300 calories per hour can be consumed during exercise to spare/supplement stored carbohydrate (glycogen). Drinking calories is easier than eating solid food for most people. Maltodextrin sports products can provide up to 600 calories per standard waterbottle (16-18 ounces, 500 ml) with a concentration causing less gastrointestinal distress than a standard 6% simple sugar solution—which provides only up to 125 calories per bottle. Most sports gels are primarily maltodextrins and come in packages of about 100 calories.
Fluids During Competition
Anticipate continuous losses of 2+ quarts (64 ounces, 2 liters) per hour with moderate- or high-intensity work in conditions of heat and humidity.
Most athletes can easily learn to consume up to 1 quart (32 ounces, 1 liter) per hour. With more training, athletes can consume up to 48 ounces of fluids per hour.
Salt Loss During Competition
The only mineral loss than needs attention during competition is sodium. Since those who have salt-poor diets may consume less than 2,500 mg per day, and since 1,000 mg be lost per quart (liter) of sweat, salting foods and salty foods may need to be considered where significant sweat losses may occur.
Fats slow digestion. Fats can be profitably used to slow digestion to provide steady calories when effort is moderate or less; or when racing is more than several hours in the future. Fats consumed with meals just prior to competition can result in indigestion and reduce performance.
1. Bring a waterbottle with some calories in it. Or water and a snack or energy bar/gel. Or plan on a snack and drink when you get back to the office, home, or wherever you are going.
2. Depending upon the intensity of the ride, plan to consume 500 to 1000 calories during the ride. Depending upon heat and humidity, drink 1-1/2 to 6 waterbottles. If it is cool and you ride at low intensity, a bottle and a half may be enough. If it is hot and humid and you are riding at high intensity, 6 bottles may not be enough to keep up with your losses.
3. Same as #2 above. Be sure to emphasize carbohydrates in your general diet, consuming 65% or more of your total calories from carbs.
4. Emphasize carbs in general. Average 300 calories per hour while riding. Keep up with fluids loses. Especially if hot and humid, eat salty meals and snacks.
5. Eat 1,000+ calories for breakfast, 300 calories per hour while riding. If hot and humid, replace fluids up to three waterbottles per hour, though only half that amount may be realistic. Bring salty snacks.
6. Same as #4 above. Use specialty maltodextrin products as a fuel source during competition.
7. Breakfast: Avoid a heavy fatty meal just before competition, but aim for 500 or more calories, perhaps in liquid form, to top off glycogen stores.
8. Avoid a heavy fatty meal for breakfast. Aim for 1,000+ calories before competition.
9. Common racer error: Not keeping up with calories during the morning and midday. Aim for 1,500+ calories for breakfast and snack before the competition.
10. Common racer error. Not keeping up with calories pre-competition. Aim for 1,000+ calories pre-competition. Avoid heavy-fatty breakfast. Drink at least 300 calories per hour of a maltodextrin product.
11. Common racer error. Not keeping up with calories pre-competition. Aim for 1,200+ calories pre-competition. Drink at least 300 calories per hour of a maltodextrin product.
12. Common racer error. Not keeping up with calories pre-competition. Aim for 1,500+ calories pre-competition. Drink at least 300 calories per hour of a maltodextrin product. Keep hydrated: Drink four or more waterbottles.
13. Common track-racer problem: Timing of feeds with uncertain start times. Avoid heavy fatty meals within 2 hours of competition. Keep up with calories pre-competition, with 300 calories per hour, relying mostly on carbohydrates. Solid foods may be taken if more than 1 hour before competition; otherwise use maltodextrin fluids or gels.
Want more info? For a more complete discussion see the Nutrition For Sports book.